Mixed-Mode: Past, Present, and Future

  • Edith D. DeLeeuw Department of Methodology & Statistics Utrecht University
Keywords: offline surveys, online surveys, mobile surveys, equivalence, multiple modes, multiple devices, mode selection effect, mode measurement effect, prevention, adjustment


Mixed-mode surveys have been around since the late 1980s. In the past thirty years, major changes in technology and society influenced and changed data collection and survey methodology. However, in those years, mixed-mode strategies remained part of the daily survey practice, although the type of mix implemented followed the changes in technology and data collection methods. In this paper, I summarize the state of the art in traditional mixed-mode surveys and discuss implications for mixed device surveys.
How to Cite
DeLeeuw, E. D. (2018). Mixed-Mode: Past, Present, and Future. Survey Research Methods, 12(2), 75-89. https://doi.org/10.18148/srm/2018.v12i2.7402