A comparison of the invariance properties of the PVQ-40 and the PVQ-21 to measure human values across German and Polish Samples

Jan Cieciuch, Eldad Davidov


The Schwartz theory of basic human values has promoted a revival of empirical research on values in cross-cultural, social, and personality psychology. A central topic in the application of values is comparing them across cultures. This study examines the measurement invariance of the full 40-item version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ) as compared to the 21-item version as applied in the European Social Survey (ESS). The research was carried out on a total sample of 1,204 individuals in Poland and Germany. Measurement invariance was tested using two-group confirmatory factor analyses. Analyses revealed that all the values measured by the PVQ-40 displayed not only configural and metric but also partial scalar invariance for all 10 values with the exception of the stimulation value, thus allowing the mean comparison of nine out of the 10 postulated values. However, the 21-item version achieved partial scalar only for seven values. We conclude that the PVQ-40 is more appropriate for cross-cultural research.


human values; configural, metric, and scalar invariance; PVQ-40; PVQ-21

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18148/srm/2012.v6i1.5091

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