Two of a Kind. Similarities Between Ranking and Rating Data in Measuring Values.


  • Guy Moors Tilburg University
  • Ingrid Vriens
  • John P.T.M. Gelissen
  • Jeroen K. Vermunt



Rating and Ranking questions, Survey methodology, Measuring attitudes and values, Latent class analysis, Questionnaire modes


The key research question asked in this research is to what extent the respondents’ answers to ranking a set of items is mirrored in the response pattern when using rating questions. For example: Do respondents who prefer intrinsic over extrinsic work values in a ranking questionnaire also rate intrinsic values higher than extrinsic values when ratings are used? We adopt a modified version of the form-resistant hypothesis, arguing that each questionnaire mode yields unique features that prevent it from establishing a perfect match between both modes. By adopting a unified latent class model that allows identifying latent class profiles that share a particular preference structure in both question modes, we show that a large portion of respondents tend to identify similar preferences structures in work values regardless of the questionnaire mode used. At the same time the within-subjects design we use is able to answer questions regarding how non-differentiators in a rating assignment react to a ranking assignment in which non-differentiation is excluded by design. Our findings are important since – contrary to popular belief – ranking and ratings do produce results that are more similar than often thought. The practical relevance of our study for secondary data analysts is that our approach provides them with a tool to identify relative preference structures in a given dataset that was asked by rating questions and hence not directly designed to reveal such preferences.


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How to Cite

Moors, G., Vriens, I., Gelissen, J. P., & Vermunt, J. K. (2016). Two of a Kind. Similarities Between Ranking and Rating Data in Measuring Values. Survey Research Methods, 10(1), 15–33.




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