How few countries will do? Comparative survey analysis from a Bayesian perspective


  • Joop J.C.M. Hox Universiteit Utrecht
  • Rens van de Schoot Utrecht University
  • Suzette Matthijsse Utrecht University and Dept of Public Health, University Medical Center, Rotterdam



Multilevel SEM, sample size, cross-national research, Bayesian estimation


Meuleman and Billiet (2009) have carried out a simulation study aimed at the question how many countries are needed for accurate multilevel SEM estimation in comparative studies. The authors concluded that a sample of 50 to 100 countries is needed for accurate estimation. Recently, Bayesian estimation methods have been introduced in structural equation modeling which should work well with much lower sample sizes. The current study reanalyzes the simulation of Meuleman and Billiet using Bayesian estimation to find the lowest number of countries needed when conducting multilevel SEM. The main result of our simulations is that a sample of about 20 countries is sufficient for accurate Bayesian estimation, which makes multilevel SEM practicable for the number of countries commonly available in large scale comparative surveys.




How to Cite

Hox, J. J., van de Schoot, R., & Matthijsse, S. (2012). How few countries will do? Comparative survey analysis from a Bayesian perspective. Survey Research Methods, 6(2), 87–93.




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