• Constanze Loschner
  • Richard Smith
  • Margy Galloway
Keywords: rowing, on-water, 3D boat orientation, sculling, intra-stroke, gyroscope


It has been established that the amount of yaw, pitch and roll induced in the boat by a sculler, will affect the efficiency of boat propulsion. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyse the orientation of a rowing boat (Single Scull) in three dimensions and to relate the results to the rowing style of the sculler. The study will examine the relationship between the boat orientation, the seat and the hand position. In rowing, the movement of the seat and the rowers’ body mass influences the pitch of the boat. The roll and yaw of the boat is dependent on the skill level of the athlete and weather conditions. This relationship is a useful indicator for training and performance assessment of athletes.