The Kinematics of Forearm Passing in Low Skilled and High Skilled Volleyball Players


  • M. E. Ridgway
  • N. Hamilton


Passing may well be the least glamorous of all volleyball techniques. It is usually appreciated only by players and coaches who realize its importance. Since the advent of the forearm pass in the 1950's, many volleyball coaches at all levels of play, find themselves spending an inordinate amount of practice time in perfecting this skill. Some of the variables that make it difficult to successfully pass the ball are the varying ball speeds, angles, and unpredictable flight paths associated with float serves and block deflections. Every offensive play begins with a pass. The flow of the match is very much influenced by the serve reception which mainly is done with a forearm pass. Bad receptions prevent quick combination attacks which many teams rely on in today's game. Today's quick paced game has created an even greater need for exact, consistent passing. The goal in today's game is to isolate hitters against only one blocker. Pinpoint passing accuracy is required so that the setter has a choice of several quick play-sets and is not forced to always go outside where a double block is waiting. In higher levels of play forearm passing is often executed with low passing angles and a quick delivery to the setter in order to speed up the offensive pace and decrease the defense's time to set up effectively against the attack. Few studies (Koenh, 1978; Rauh, 1972; Plunket, 1969) have investigated the kinematics of the forearm pass and no published research has been identified that has studied passing in both high and low skilled passers. The purposes of this study were to produce a kinematic profile of low skilled and high skilled volleyball players on the forearm pass. The resulting profile will be a significant step in the development of sound coaching techniques.






Coaching and Sports Activities