DIFFERENCES IN BASIC ELEMENTS BETWEEN JUNIORS AND SENIORS AND BETWEEN WOMEN AND MEN IN GYMNASTICS
Keywords: kinematography, dynamography, speedography, gymnastics
AbstractINTRODUCTION: This investigation focused on the results of biomechanics projects carried out by the Institute for Applied Training Science (IAT) during the World Championships 1989, 1994, 1997 and the 1993 European Championships in Geneva. The 1994 and 1997 investigations were also certified as ISBS projects. METHODS: Image measuring methods, dynamometrical measurements of apparatus reaction forces, special measuring systems and mathematical models were used to differentiate between gymnastics performances by juniors and seniors and between women and men. RESULTS: In performing backward somersaults, men reached flight heights of 2.7 m, women of 2.3 m (relating to CG). Male and female juniors had lower values. Using mathematical models, maximum joint moments of the ankle, knee and hip joints were estimated. Because of the greater strength capacities of men, it was possible to establish other technical characteristics of the flic-flac as well as of the backward somersault and its take-off. These characteristics of men appeared similar to those of top level sport acrobats who reach flight heights of more than 3 m when executing somersaults. Differences in giant swing technique, before difficult flight elements and dismounts on the horizontal bar, and the uneven bars were attributed to construction-related differences in the apparatuses used by men and women. In men, higher strength values (up to 6-7 times body weight) were measured than in women (4-5 times body weight). A long-term analysis over 10 years showed a similarity of the giant swing technique in men and women. In male and female juniors, lower apparatus reaction forces were measured. The elastic qualities of gymnastic apparatuses were used less effectively by the juniors. Differences in technique could also be shown in the horse vault. The running approach velocity of men was about 1 m/s higher than that of women. At the World Championships in Lausanne these results were significant. The first flight phase was shorter (in duration) during the period of investigations. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the investigation showed the necessity to develop special training programs aimed at the improvement of the endurance, strength, speed and as well as the coordination of young male and female gymnasts. Interestingly, the results of the 1994 and 1997 ISBS projects proved to be very helpful to the Technical Committees and Working groups of the International Gymnastics Federation (FIG). REFERENCES: Brüggemann, G.-P. (1994). Biomechanics of Gymnastic Techniques. Sport Science Review. 3, 79-120. Geiblinger, H., Morrison, W. E., McLaughlin, P. (1995). Coaching Points: World Gymnastics Championships. Brisbane. Krug, J., Noble, L. (1997). Application for Participation in the 1997-98 ISBS Gymnastics Project.
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