BIOMECHANICAL CONTROL OF SPORT TECHNIQUE WITH APPLICATION OF VIDEOCOMPUTER MODELS
Keywords: biomechanical models, videocomputer, elite athletes
AbstractINTRODUCTION: Contactless optical-electronic methods of videocomputer analysis can be used to obtain objective quantitative information for efficient monitoring a motor structure of complicated coordinated exercises for elite sportsmen. Therefor the main goal of given research is to solve the problem how to improve training process quality by the means of skill technique improvement for elite sportsmen on the base of application of group and individual biomechanical models of their technique (Augulo & Dapena 1992, Haliand, Tamp & Soosar, 1988). METHODS: A videocomputer set, where a standard videotelevision unit is connected with personal computer and analogue-digital transformation videoadapters “Aver” and “Aver Pro 2000”, was used to carry out a quantitative biomechanical analysis in this work. Data reading out tested object was performed in semiautomatic regime with a videofragment having been demonstrated in a ‘‘still’’ position on a monitor. There was used a 14-segment model (N.A. Bernshtein, 1947) of human skeleton-muscle structure. Computer-videoanalizer software have allowed to calculate kinematics parameters for movement of any located in computer memory point both in movable somatic and any inertial coordinate system. The members of the Ukrainian national and junior selected teams were tested in the experiment. RESULTS: For the 1990-1997 period of research the authors elaborated individual and group biomechanical model for technique of complex motor actions in different sport: diving, athletics, ski racing, biathlon etc. As an example we can use the model in alternate two-step move of female elite athlete (Arkhipov & Zubrilov,1993).The mistake of model was 1,8%. Coefficient of group correlation - 0,94. Figure 1. Example of the videocomputer’s model in alternate two-step move. The present models are elaborated in consideration of optimal relations on the basis of the sensory and motor sides of complex movement systems. At the same time, such models are optimal and quantitatively substantiated movement variants with a particular range of such biomechanical characteristics that could be used as reference points during teaching process and as a criteria for operative control over executed movement quality. All parameters included into model can be easily used in the pedagogical process and are clear to coaches and athletes. References: 1. Arkhipov, A. A., Zubrilov, R. A. (1993). Modeling of Ski Motion Technique for Elite Athletes. International Scientific Congress ‘‘Modern Olympic Sport’’ (Summaries of Reports) (p.p. 235-237). Kiev:, Publisher House.. 2. Augulo, R. V., Dapena, J. (1992). Comparison of Film and Video Techniques for Estimating Three - Dimensional Coordinates Within a Lange Field. International Journal of Sport Biomechanics 2, 145-151. 3. Haliand, R., Tamp, T., Soosar, T. (1988). Optimal Technical Models in Starts and Turns of Competitive Swimming. Tallinn: Publisher House TPI.
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