PERFORMANCE OF CROWD MANAGEMENT SHIN GUARDS SUBJECTED TO BALL AND BASEBALL BAT IMPACTS

  • Jean-Philippe Dionne
  • Ismail El Maach
  • Kevin Semeniuk
  • Aris Makris
Keywords: Force attenuation, blunt impactor, pitching machine, injury analysis

Abstract

Two impact apparatuses simulating projectile and baton blows were used to evaluate the blunt impact attenuation performance of shin guards used in Crowd Management Interventions (CMI). These guards are strapped to the lower leg similarly to the baseball and hockey counterparts. Transmitted forces were measured through the use of piezoelectric force transducers and an accelerometer. Force attenuation factors as high as 81% were obtained when compared to impacts generated directly on a human shin surrogate. The results of an injury analysis based 001 bone fracture thresholds confirm the importance of wearing protective equipment in CMI. Large deviations were observed when comparing the results from the two threat simulators, baseball bat impacts yielding higher transmitted force than ball impacts for the same energy level. This indicates that the impact energy alone is not sufficient to fully describe the impact profile. When testing protective equipment, it is important to select impact generators that appropriately replicate the type of threats that the equipment must protect against.