KINEMATIC AND DYNAMIC COUPLED MEASUREMENTS IN TETHERED FRONT CRAWL SWIMMING
Keywords: piezoelectric balance, optoelectronic system, mean force, stroke frequency
AbstractForce measurements of athletes in aquatic environments are difficult to perform. Competitive swimming has been confronted with this problem for many years. Tethered swimming is a means used to measure propulsive forces (Martin, Yeater & White, 1981). According to Filho and Denadai (2008), this method is often used to measure the performance level of swimmers and also as a training resource. Its validity has been shown on numerous occasions, notably in its good correlation between swimming velocity, stroke frequency and the measured forces (Yeater, Martin, White & Gilson, 1981; Morouço, Keskinen, Vilas-Boas & Fernandes, 2011). This method has good test–retest reliability (Kjendlie & Thorsvald, 2006), and it provides muscle activity patterns very similar to those displayed in free swimming (Bollens, Annemans, Vaes, & Clarys, 1988). Even if there are questions about the swimming technique used in the tethered swimming compared to the free swimming, this method is important to know the forces created by the stroke technique, especially by the arms. It seems also interesting to measure the forces in the three characteristic paces (long distance, middle distance and sprint). This kinematic and dynamic coupled method is transferable in training pool, and then it could be an everyday tool for swimmers and coaches to measure and to improve the technical swimmers.
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