LOWER-EXTREMITY JOINT ANGLES USED DURING THE BREASTSTROKE WHIP KICK

  • B. Christina Kippenhan
Keywords: whip kick, skill level, range of motion. videography

Abstract

The study investigated the range of lower-extremity joint angles exhibited during the execution of the whip kick and the influence of the active range of motion (a ROM) of these joints on the effectiveness of the kick. Swimmers of different skill levels were videotaped performing whip kick sprints and standard aROM assessment tests. The obtained three-dimensional coordinates of selected body landmarks were used to determine range of lower-extremity joint angles during the whip kick and the aROM of these joints. The results indicated that while for swimmers with below average flexibility, many joint motions can limit the effectiveness of the whip kick; the external knee rotation was the joint motion most likely to do so. Furthermore, improvements in kicking speed have to be accompanied by improvements in the ankle inversion aROM.