APPLICATION OF PRESSURE MEASURES TO PREDICT PROPULSIVE FORCES EXERTED BY THE HAND DURING SWIMMING

  • Shigetada Kudo
  • Ian Harris Sujae
  • Khalid Jabbar
Keywords: propulsive drag and lift, dynamic pressure, towing system

Abstract

The aim of this study is to investigate the validity of the pressure method to predict propulsive forces exerted by the hand during swimming. The use of pressure measures has been developed to predict hydrodynamic forces acting on the hand in swimming; however, the method has not been validated during swimming. Three swimmers were asked to swim without a kicking motion against a counter-weight in a towing system and to keep their position the same. The pressure method predicted the mean propulsive force by 25±12% differences from the known weights. The difference may be due to the propulsive force due to the forearm. This study estimated the hand propulsions due to drag and lift forces reliably, which can be useful information for a swimmer and coach.