COMPUTATION OF HIP AND SHOULDER TORQUES IN COMPETITIVE SWIMMING

  • A. Schüler
  • F. Hildebrand
Keywords: 3D analysis, hydrodynamics, swimming, muscle force moment, propulsion

Abstract

The mechanisms of propulsion can be deduced from 3D video analysis of swimming. The basic hydrodynamic equation can be used to compute the total force for those particles. The shoulder torque was calculated by summation over hand, lower arm and upper arm of infinitesimal torques of displaced water particles. These muscle force moments were related to the velocity of the mass centre as a measure of the propulsion. However, a direct interrelation between velocity and torques cannot be established since the total resistance of the body in motion is unknown. Therefore, the aim was to determine individual differences in swimming technique, controlled by shoulder, hip torques and swimming velocity, at any state of one movement cycle. Recommendations for best propulsion techniques are derived.