LANDING IN GYMNASTICS
AbstractINTRODUCTION In present-day gymnastics, stable landings always makes the athletes' skillful performance even better and therefore have won world-wide emphasis. The author, who has been researching in this field, presents a detailed scientific analysis of 10 athletes' landing movements, and finds a reliable and effective way of implementing improvement. METHODS By means of high-speed photography and photoanalysis, a full-scale comparative analysis was made of the 9 major parameters out of 22 which jointly determine the quality of landing, based on quality pre-landing movements. These 9 major parameters are the length and the width of foot, the horizontal and vertical speeds of the center of gravity movements, the angles of landing, buffering and braking, the respective angles of hip joint, knee joint and ankle joint. RESULTS 1. The first four above parametes were comparatively stable while the last five of the above-mentioned 9 parameters were more varying, subject to changes during different movements of landing. Among them, the angle of landing was of great importance ensuring the stability of landing. 2. During buffering, the angles of hip joint, knee joint and ankle joint are continuously changing when adjusting the comparative altitude of the center of gravity in order to keep balance. The mean angle of the knee joint was m 2(f rom 160 the instant touching ground to 98 at the end of buffering), the biggest of the three. CONCLUSIONS 1. Through training, those five constantly varying parameters mentioned above can be stabilized in a certain set of movement, which consequently stabilizes the landing. 2. All data acquired from the analysis jointly determine the quality of landing and can be applied to improving the stability of landing and decreasing the risk of athletic injury. REFERENCES Li Shan-xiu, "Research in Gymnastic Landing Movements", Shandong Sports Science Magazine, 1984. Liang Kun-miao, "Dynamics", Higher Education Press, 1965. Zhou Yan-bai, "Theories of Dynamics", People's Education Press, 1979.