MECHANICAL STRESS ON KNEES DURING HALF-SQUAT EXERCISES
AbstractINTRODUCTION Articular forces and moments have been found to be affected by the lifting technique in ergonomics (Trafirnow et al., 1993) and in weight-training (Poumarat et al.,1989).While these researchers have improved our understanding of biomechanical aspects of lifting as related to the spine and the lower extremities, most of them remain related to either static orquasi-static conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanical stress on the knee joint using a 3-D dynamic model. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three male volunteer students participated in the study. They were asked to perform three different sets of 10 half-squat exercises: no load, 100% and 120% of total body mass of the subject additional weight. To determine kinematic data, the movement of the half-squat exercises was recorded using the Mac Reflex optoelectronic system (4 cameras) with markers on the left lower extremity at the fust metatarsal, the external rnalleolus, the external lateral femoral condyle and the greater trochanter. A six components force-plate (AMTI) provided kinetic data. Compressive and the shear forces acting on the thigh at the knee joint were calculated where; Fx represents the compressive force; Mx, the external rotatory moment of the thigh; Fy, the medio-lateral shear force; My, the extension moment of the thigh; Fz, the antero-posterior shear force; and Mz, the abductor moment of the thigh. The resultant knee force, in all subjects, increases when lifted load increases. A similar increase in the resultant moment at the knee joint was found. These pic values were calculated for a knee angle of 108. The medio-lateral shear force (Fy) was not affected by the load. However, during the middle phase of the exercise, the mtero-posterior shear force increased from 0.72 to 0. 88 times body weight when lifted mass increased from 1 to 1.20 times body weight. For the compressive component (Fx), no clear variation as a function of load was found in this study in all subjects. Even for the heaviest load (120% body weight), no increase in forces and moments was recorded from the first to the last repetition of one set. CONCLUSION The results of this study demonstrated that mechanical stress acting on knee joint in half-squat exercise increased with lifted barbell. For knee force components, load was found to affect only the antero-posterior shear force. The medio-lateral shear force was independent of this variable. Force and moment values were affected by REFERENCES Poumarat, G., Dabonneville, M., Chandezon, R., & Roddier, P. (1989). Les squats: Forces induites sur I'articulation du genou et sur L5 S 1 en fonction des postures adoptCes. CinCsiologie, 69-74. Trafimow, J.H., Schipplein, O.D., Novak, G.H.,& Andersson, G.B.J. (1993). The effects ofquadriceps fatigue on the technique of lifting. Spine, 18,364-367.
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