BIOKINEMATIC MODEL OF IMPACT IN THE SPORTS

  • Giacomo Mule

Abstract

After examining all the movement, I noticed that the athlete interacts, almost always, with the ground or with a piece of apparatus which can be considered a fixed mass. There are many types of apparatus which meet this condition: the symmetric and asymmetric parallel bars, the horse for vaulting, obstacles for the hurdle-race and so on. Therefore, I would like to suggest a general biokinematic model of impact which can be applied, with opportune variants, to the various impact which are present between the athlete and the ground, especially during the application of impelling forces, which can provoke macro and micro-traumas. The trauma, suffered during sports, as a single or an amount of micro-traumas, compels the athlete to a forced inactivity, of which it's known the negative consequences for the short and long-term performances. Thus, it's possible to reduce the negative effects coming from impact by the possession of a inquiting step able to emphas~ze the negative effects due to technical errors or interaction between the fixed mass and the athlete. This is also possible by operating on the technique of performance of the movement, on the making of the apparatus (the new horse for vaulting), on the contact surface (track events) interacting with the athlete or by operating on the drawing of the equipment which interpose between the athlete and the ground, as for example what happens to the shoes or to skis in the jumping competition. The athlete is not a rigid system, as a consequence the effect of the impact travels along the anatomic segments which act as shock absorbers and, depend~ngo n the size of the angles. That takes place during the movements, between the various anatomic segments, the impact can affect in particular a joint or a series of joints. For this reason I would like to present the general biomechanical model of impact to analyses the impacts along the axes x, y, z by means of Langrang's coordinates and equations that permit to study the effects of impact. I hope my present research can help trainers and biomechanics to analyse in detail the tecnique of execution in order to prevent or cut down the negative effects of impact.