• Kazuaki Kawashima
Keywords: golf, swing, big toe, force, acceleration


The purpose of this study was to investigate the intensity of force on the big toes of both feet during the golf swing. The subjects were four right-handed golfers; male tournament professional-golfer, male amateur golfer (HDCP 16), female tournament professional-golfer, and female amateur golfer (HDCP 20). There were obvious differences among four golfers in the swing movement, comparing the intensity of force of the right and left big toes. The findings were as follows: Male pro-golfer demonstrated a gradual increase in force on his both big toes. Female pro-golfer confirmed the presence of force on right and left toe with the value 14 Ns and 11 Ns, respectively. On the other hand, the male amateur golfer exhibited high force (11 Ns) on the left big toe. Both the male and the female pro-golfer and the male amateur showed higher force during the back swing (A-T) phase, compared with other phases, e.g. downswing (T-I) and follow-through (I-F). On the other hand, the female amateur golfer showed higher force at I-F phase. It may be considered that during back swing, the more skillful golfer puts force on the big toes of both feet. Results of this study indicated that toe force at A-T phase is an important factor that is required, in order to hit a ball correctly and with power. In addition, results from this study can be utilized for the development of a technique for improving the swing action of golfers.