Analysis of Archery Shooting Techniques by Means of Electromyography
AbstractThe interaction between the processes of excitation and inhibition plays a major role in the mechanisms of motor coordination. In the inhibitory phenomenon, from Hoffmann (1920) cited in Hoff et al. (1934) to Abraham et al. (1987), it has been shown that an electromyographic silent period is evident just before the voluntary movement following the preparatory phase, The present authors (Nishizono et al. 1984, Nishizono et al. 1987) demonstrated the inhibition prior to skilled voluntary movement. In the movement of shooting an arrow, there is a large amount of neuromuscular involvement in the «simple act». Neurophysiologically, the movement of shooting an arrow is the stable posture in a typical tonic neck reflex. To get a good record in an archery competition, one requires a well-balanced and highly reproducible release during the shooting. The stages for archery shooting, such as Bow Hold, Drawing, Full Draw, Aiming, Release and Follow-Through, are the stable sequence of movements and are suitable for studying the motor control and skill-aquiring processes of the voluntary movement. In the present study, first, the shooting techniques of world class archers were analysed compared with middle-class and beginner archers by means of EMGs, and second, archers of three shill levels were employed to measure the EMGs during archery shooting, to clarify the differences of the releasing movement.