APPLICATIONS TO THROWING OF RECENT RESEARCH ON PROXIMAL-TO-DISTAL SEQUENCING

  • R. N. Marshall
Keywords: proximal-to-distal sequencing, kinematics, throwing, racquet sports

Abstract

Most assessments of segmental sequencing in throwing, striking or kicking have indicated a proximal-to-distal sequence; until recently, the role of long-axis rotations had not been adequately quantified. Data showing the timing and importance of upper arm internal-external rotation and pronation-supination in throwing and striking have been considered from conventional concepts of proximal-to-distal sequencing. In general, longaxis rotations reached their peak angular speeds late in the skills, although variations are seen as a result of ball size or mass, the magnitude of external forces and use of a racquet. This analysis indicates it is essential to consider longitudinal axis rotations in explaining the mechanics of throwing and striking movements as well as in developing coaching emphases, strength training schedules, and injury prevention programmes.