BIOMECHANICAL PECULIARITIES OF THE BODY'S ORTHOGRADE POSE IN HIGHLY SKILLED LONG JUMPERS
Keywords: biomechanics, long jump, orthograde pose, stabilography
AbstractINTRODUCTION: The human motor system developed under the influence of earth's gravitational field on the evolutionary process. Modern techniques for jumps in track & field have developed on the basis of man's natural jump locomotions. The training process for long jumpers is based on the fundamentals of biomechanics of the human body's gravitational interactions, which in turn are realized by the athlete thanks to active moves of his body mass in the environment about the support accounted for by differential and highly-coordinated contraction of definite muscle groups. That is why the biomechanical control of those interactions in the training process of highly skilled athletes is of a great interest today. This gives a possibility to identify the mechanisms of the athlete's body mass interaction with support and to evaluate objectively their skeletal muscle condition during training for major competitions. The objective of this research is to study the possibilities of biomechanical control for efficiency increase in technical training of highly skilled long jumpers. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: In order to reach the objectives of this research, special experiments were carried out with highly skilled long jumpers who have displayed an average result of 5.9-7.35m. The main anthropometrical parameters of the subjects were measured and their body masses' geometry defined. The parameters of their CM (center of mass) fluctuations in orthograde pose about the horizontal plane were measured using the stabilography method with the computer. Moreover, the biomechanical properties of the same athletes' large skeletal muscle groups, which realized the main components of technical actions in long jumping, were measured with a myotonometrical system consisting of a piezoelectric inertial accelerometer and analog-to-digital converters connected with a computer.
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