BIOMECHANICAL CONTROL OF SPORT TECHNIQUE WITH THE APPLICATION OF VIDEO-COMPUTER MODELS
Keywords: biomechanical models, video computer, elite athletes
AbstractINTRODUCTION: The development of personal computers and video-technique in the 90s gave a new impulse for improving the automation of training process control. By this time, in biomechanics, the wide experiences in the analysis of human movements in sport have been yet cumulated. However, its large scale usage, based mainly on the traditional cinematography & photography technologies of movements registration, has been slowed by a complexity and capacity of digital operations during kinograms processing in practice. So a wellturned conjunction of video-technology for movement registration and very effective technology for results processing based on biomechanical analysis algorithms, already tested in multiple experiments, have had impressive results. This direction of sport training was mostly expanded in civilized states where just from the beginning of the 80s the technological base was exchanged in the athlete's movement measuring sphere to «on-line» (real time) mode. The advanced biomechanical achievements employment in sport practice resulted in a research technology exchange that was a major computerization at all levels, designing and manufacturing the highly productive and inexpensive microcomputers. That is why a more effective measuring technology and complicated precise measuring equipment which is available to register any necessary parameter, are important characteristics of this exchanging. Among the advanced technologies, the remote and non-contact researching technologies are in first place. The above statements identify three basic directions of measuring system development in sport biomechanics today: • high-speed video-cameras connected with video-film converter for personal computer; • stationary mounted dynamographic platforms operated in natural conditions of sport training and providing data output through analog-to-digital converters with personal computers; • automated videogram processing systems including personal computers. In of three cases, data fixation & processing technology while personal computer is used in «real time» mode, gives a possibility to operate with large data dimensions. At that, the accent of the research is directed to the studying of the technique model for highly skilled athletes. It became the ground for mobile laboratories with compact measuring systems which gave a possibility to control the athlete's motor action during the training process under natural conditions and to give close solutions to sport technique simulation problems. The main goal of the given research is to solve the problem of how to improve training process quality by means of skill technique improvement with elite athletes on the base of application of group and individual biomechanical models of their technique (Augulo & Dapena 1992, Haliand, Tamp & Soosar, 1988). The following main tasks were solved: • process design for biomechanical criteria control in the technique of studied actions; • identification of quantitative (kinematical) technique model for highly skilled athletes; • forecasting different variants and possibilities for element correction of studied motor action technique on the basis of video-computer animation with designed models.
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