BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF SPRINTING TO IMPROVE THE INDIVIDUAL TECHNIQUE

  • Christiane Bohn
  • Gong B. Shan
  • Ralf Attermeyer
  • M. Schulte
  • Klaus Nicol
Keywords: sprint, gait-analysis, ground reaction forces, training, multi-jointconcept

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to record dynamic and cinematic parameters during sprinting with maximum velocity. The sprint start is also examined. The motion analysis aims for an improvement of the individual technique METHODS: 21 male and 3 female runners took part in this study. Cinematic and dynamic parameters were recorded during start and fast running. In the sagitall plane the following parameters were analysed: joint-angles, velocities and acceleration of joints, centres of joints, joint forces and joint moments. These parameters were recorded with two high-speed cameras (250 Hz) and a 3- dimensional force platform (measuring area 240x80 cm). The experimental set-up allowed the recording of two successive steps on the force platform while the dynamical- and kinematical-data was synchronously obtained. Additionally the reaction time was measured. The reaction time is the time from the start signal to the moment the rear leg leaves the block,. The high-speed video data were interpreted with the software package winanalyze from Mikromak. RESULTS: Very different rotary actions of the shoulders to balance the hip action were observed. The main differences between the single athletes became evident in the velocities and the accelerations of the hip and the knee-angles. Particularly variable forces in the direction of movement (retarding stroke) came forward between the different athletes. The observed tendencies will be verfied in another study in June. OUTLOOK: After the inquiry of the general fitness of the sprinters the development of a special training-program for each athlete is intended in the next step. It will be based on the Multi-Joint-Concept form R. P. Narcessian. REFERENCES: Hay, J. G. (1993). The Biomechanics of Sports Techniques. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.