• Hermann Schwameder
  • Robin Roithner
  • Erich Müller
  • Wolfgang Niessen
  • Christian Raschner
Keywords: 2D knee model, knee joint forces, loads on the knee joint, on-line screening


INTRODUCTION: For calculating knee joint forces quasi-static and dynamic 2D knee models have been developed (Moeinzadeh et al., 1983, Nisell, 1985, Yamaguchi/ Zajac, 1989). From the preventive point of view the on-line calculation and screening of knee joint forces could give us important simultaneous feedback on the loads on the different structures during training and performance exercises in several sports. Based on these considerations an existing 2D knee model should be adapted for on-line calculating and screening of knee joint forces. METHODS: The purpose is to determine the kinematics of the knee joint as function of the knee angle. Therefore data from Yamaguchi/Zajac (1989), Nisell (1985) and ourselves were combined to the 2D model called 'Plakmos'. All relevant parameters needed for determining the kinematics of the knee were calculated for knee angles between 0° and 96° in steps of 2°. In a further procedure these data were calculated as polynomial functions of the knee angle up to order 10 using non-linear regression technique. These functions in combination with the direction, the magnitude and the point of application of the ground reaction force (GRF) are sufficient to obtain the main compression, shear and tendon forces. A special measuring device consisting of a force platform (for determining the direction, magnitude and application point of the GRF) and two goniometers (to obtain the ankle and knee angles) yields the input data for calculating the knee joint forces. The data collection and the calculation procedure is carried out using the measuring software Dasylab. RESULTS: The kinematics of Plakmos coincides with the knee models reported very closely, so the validity of the model is given with sufficient accuracy to investigate at least relative comparisons in different situations. The utility and simplicity of the measuring device including Plakmos has been demonstrated in comparative studies of knee bending with and without additional weights and different knee bending techniques. REFERENCES: Moeinzadeh, M., Engin, A., Akkas, N. (1983). Two-Dimensional Dynamic Modeling of Human Knee Joint. J. Biomechanics 16, 253-264. Nisell, R. (1985). Mechanics of the Knee. A. Orth. Scand, Suppl. 216, 56, 4-42. Yamaguchi, G., Zajac, F. (1989). A Planar Model of the Knee Joint to Characterize the Knee Extensor Mechanism. J. Biomechanics 22, 1-10.