Universal Quantification and NPI Licensing


  • Mingya Liu


In this paper, I try to reduce the NPI licensors every, no, only and conditionals to universal quantification ?x(Px ? Qx) that licenses NPIs in the restrictor P, which is downward entailing or more exactly, anti-additive. For the uniform analysis, I also advocate two more constraints to guarantee the licensing: one, the restrictor P and the scope Q should be in an essential relation ?x(Px ?essential Qx), i.e. not only if Px, then Qx, but also Qx in virtue of Px. Second, NPIs should occur in the focus within the restrictor, i.e. . . . [. . .NPI . . .]F. . . in Px.


How to Cite

Liu, M. (2019). Universal Quantification and NPI Licensing. Proceedings of Sinn Und Bedeutung, 14, 273–288. Retrieved from https://ojs.ub.uni-konstanz.de/sub/index.php/sub/article/view/472