Japanese 'Mo' (Also/Even) and 'Shika' (Except for/Only)


  • Mana Kobuchi-Philip


This paper discusses Japanese particles mo ‘also/even’ and shika ‘except for/only’ that follow a noun X as [X-mo/shika]. Syntactically, X-mo and X-shika are argued to be predicate modifiers. Semantically, the conditions of the exception construction noted in the literature are relevant for both mo- and shika-sentences: They both express (i) the relationship between X and the argument construed with X, and (ii) the relationship between X and the predicate (von Fintel 1993, Moltmann 1995). The minimal difference with respect to condition (ii) gives rise to an inclusion interpretation (mo) or an exclusion interpretation (shika). In addition, I argue that they both require the presence of another element which has the properties of the argument and the predicate, though it is a semantic condition for mo, while it is a pragmatic condition for shika.


How to Cite

Kobuchi-Philip, M. (2019). Japanese ’Mo’ (Also/Even) and ’Shika’ (Except for/Only). Proceedings of Sinn Und Bedeutung, 14, 219–236. Retrieved from https://ojs.ub.uni-konstanz.de/sub/index.php/sub/article/view/469