Circumstantial modality and the diversity condition


  • Guillaume Thomas


Condoravdi (2002) observed that the perfect cannot scope below metaphysical modals. She argued that this is a consequence of a constraint on the use of modal operators, the diversity condition (see also Werner, 2003). Recently, Abusch (2012) challenged Condoravdi’s analysis by identifying instances of circumstantial modals that cannot scope over the perfect but that cannot be analysed as metaphysical modals either. In this paper, I show that the diversity condition can be exploited to derive the ban on low perfects with non priority circumstantial modals (Portner, 2009), and I explain why priority circumstantial modals are not subject to this constraint.


How to Cite

Thomas, G. (2019). Circumstantial modality and the diversity condition. Proceedings of Sinn Und Bedeutung, 18, 433–450. Retrieved from