Internal and external readings of same: Evidence for a uniform account


  • Daniel Hardt


Same is an anaphoric element that performs a comparison, which can either be external or internal to a sentence. Hardt and Mikkelsen (2015) show that same, unlike other anaphoric expressions, imposes a parallelism constraint, and they present three types of examples showing that same is infelicitous in the absence of parallelism. Hardt and Mikkelsen propose an account that applies uniformly to internal and external readings; however, the evidence they present largely targets external readings – they don’t offer empirical evidence that clearly supports the uniform approach. Furthermore, Barker (2007) argues that internal readings must be treated differently than external readings. In this paper, I show that the parallelism effects observed by Hardt and Mikkelsen in fact apply to internal readings as well. This provides support for a uniform treatment of internal and external readings of same. It also suggests that discourse relations, which typically apply to separate overt predications, also apply to the implicit predications that arise in distributional structures.


How to Cite

Hardt, D. (2019). Internal and external readings of same: Evidence for a uniform account. Proceedings of Sinn Und Bedeutung, 21(1), 535–546. Retrieved from