The pa/wa of imperative alternatives


  • Hiroaki Saito
  • Adrian Stegovec


This paper deals with topic markers interacting with discourse information in imperatives. It compares two topic markers from Slovenian (‘pa’) and Japanese (‘-wa’) and shows that while they mostly match in terms of the foci they associate with, their functions differ in imperatives: only ‘pa’ may yield a concessive imperative reading. It is shown that this reading can be derived while keeping a single entry for ‘pa’ by making attitudes of discourse participants part of the focus ‘pa’ associates with. The split between Slovenian and Japanese can then be attributed to minor differences in terms of which foci ‘pa’ and ‘-wa’ may associate with.




How to Cite

Saito, H., & Stegovec, A. (2019). The pa/wa of imperative alternatives. Proceedings of Sinn Und Bedeutung, 22(2), 325–342. Retrieved from