The Lawngtlang Zophei verbal complex


  • Samson Lotven Indiana University
  • Zai Sung Indiana University


Kuki-Chin languages offer complex and innovative agreement systems within Tibeto-Burman which make use of pre- and post-verbal subject and object agreement markers. The choice of verb paradigm often varies based on valency, mood, and polarity, among other factors. Outside of current work at Indiana University, Zophei is undescribed. This research contributes to the literature on Kuki-Chin agreement by offering a description of the verbal complex of Lawngtlang Zophei based on the intuitions of (co-author) Zai Sung, a native speaker. The description includes subject and object agreement paradigms for contexts varying by valency (transitive, intransitive), polarity (negative, affirmative), and mood (declarative, interrogative, imperative). In addition, the plural subject/object marker, directional, future, negative, and question markers are discussed along with the order of morphemes within the verbal complex.