Estimating Hydrodynamic Forces Acting on the Hand during Sculling in Synchronized Swimming

  • Miwako Homma
  • Yuma Kawai
  • Hideki Takagi
Keywords: Synchronized swimming, sculling, pressure distribution measurement


The characteristics of the hydrodynamic farces acting on the hand at different loads during sculling in synchronized swimming was estimated using a pressure distribution measuring method. One cycle of flat scull in a back layout position and support scull in a vertical position for one female national-level synchronized swimmer were analyzed. Results showed, at small loads in the flat scull, larger hydrodynamic force was observed during out-scull. As load increased, the hydrodynamic force increased during in-scull, and the values were observed to equalize between in-scull and out-scull. At all loads in the support scull, the larger value was observed during in-scull. It was apparent that in both sculls, the hydrodynamic force increased as the load increased, and the pressure on the dorsum of the hand decreased when large hydrodynamic force was generated.