Estimating Hydrodynamic Forces Acting on the Hand during Sculling in Synchronized Swimming

Miwako Homma, Yuma Kawai, Hideki Takagi


The characteristics of the hydrodynamic farces acting on the hand at different loads during sculling in synchronized swimming was estimated using a pressure distribution measuring method. One cycle of flat scull in a back layout position and support scull in a vertical position for one female national-level synchronized swimmer were analyzed. Results showed, at small loads in the flat scull, larger hydrodynamic force was observed during out-scull. As load increased, the hydrodynamic force increased during in-scull, and the values were observed to equalize between in-scull and out-scull. At all loads in the support scull, the larger value was observed during in-scull. It was apparent that in both sculls, the hydrodynamic force increased as the load increased, and the pressure on the dorsum of the hand decreased when large hydrodynamic force was generated.


Synchronized swimming; sculling; pressure distribution measurement

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ISSN 1999-4168