KINETICS OF THE WINDMILL SOFTBALL PITCH FOR WOMEN

  • J. Alderson
  • B. Elliott
Keywords: softball, windmill pitch

Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) high-speed cinematography and dynamometry were used to analyse the windmill pitching action of 10 high performance female pitchers. Mean ground reaction forces of 0.3BW (vertically) and 1.7 BW (horizontally) were recorded from the 'driving-leg'. A mean peak sagittal plane flexion torque of 45.7 Nm and a mean peak extensor torque of -134.9 Nm were recorded for the shoulder joint. These forces show that windmill pitching is a high force activity where specific physical preparation is required, particularly at the shoulder joint, to protect the body from injury.