BIOMECHANICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF RIFLE SHOOTING IN SIMULATED BIATHLON COMPETITION

  • Riku Valleala
  • Ari Nummela
  • Kaisu Mononen
  • Asko Nuutinen
Keywords: biathlon, physiology, rifle shooting, feedback, multimedia, optoelectronic measurements

Abstract

In biathlon competition heart rate levels are commonly approximately 93 % of individual maximum heart rate during skiing. During the shooting heart rate level usually decreases to 61-73 % of maximum (Hoffman & Street, 1992). The result of biathlon competition is mostly affected by VO2max and upper body capacity (Rundell & Bacharach, 1995) and shooting performance including shooting time and accuracy (Hoffman, Gilson, Westenburg & Spencer, 1992). Shooting performance is affected by stability of shooting stance and rifle hold, especially in standing shooting (Groslambert, Candau, Hoffman, Bardy, & Rouillon, 1999). Physical loading diminishes shooting performance the more upper body muscles are involved in exercise (Hoffman, et al. 1992; Groslambert, Candau, Gillot & Rouillon, 1996; Groslambert, et al. 1999). Physical exercise and increasing muscle fatigue results poorer control of balance and shooting posture. Balance control agilities of biathlon athletes have been investigated only by Bozsik, Bretz and Kaske (1995), but connection between balance agilities and shooting result have not been established by any research. The aim of this project was to develop methods for measuring shooting performance in biathlon.
Published
2007-11-09
Section
Coaching and Sports Activities