BIOMECHANICS OF SKI-JUMPING (PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE)
AbstractFrom the first official registered length of jump (Norwegian Olaf Ray jumped 9.5m in 1808) up until today's situation (jumps reach almost 200m) the exciting discipline of ski-jumping has developed substantially. Straumann (1926, 1951, 1952) started work on the mechanical solution of ski-jumping and its relation to the construction of jumping hills. Since that time biomechanical research on ski jumping has developed rapidly. Research methods have involved combinations of the following: kinematic analysis, dynamometric analysis of the take-off, wind tunnel experimentation, and modeling of the flight curve. Researchers have focused on various phases of ski-jumping and the biomechanical examination of the athlete's movement characteristics. From a description and explanation of the athlete's ski-jumping technique the researchers have drawn conclusions which have helped to accelerate the development of technique and the quality of the training process. This paper provides a biomechanical description of the key ski jumping movements. Results of the research from our laboratory as well as fiom others are presented fiom a historical perspective and are related to their contribution of technique development. The main focus is on the current status of our biomechanical knowledge of ski jumping performance and future trends.
Coaching and Sports Activities