THE ACCURACY OF THE SKI-JUMPER'S TAKE-OFF
AbstractIntroduction The Ski-jumper's take-off is the key phase in Ski-jumping. The difficulty lies in the take-off is done a t great speed (20-30 m.6- ) and in a very short amount of time (0.2-0,4sec.). Based on multifactor theory .We have defined 5 factors which are necessary to solve in one movement act: vigour, accuracy, aerodynamics, rotation, arm activity (VAVERKA, 1987).The take-off is accurate in the moment when the acceleration of the center of gravity is finished and passes through the edge of the take-off area. Problem The main goals of t h i s paper are: - quantification of the take-off accuracy (kinematic and dynamic Aspect), - the relation of the accuracy t o the other factors of the take-off and to final performance in ski-jumping, - to create a model of take-off accuracy (kinematic and dynamic point of view) which would be useful in ski-jumper's training method We have been interested in solving these problems Prom the years 1984-1992. We used the following methods: - dynamometry of the ski-jumper's take-off in natural conditions of the jumping hill in Frenstat p.R. (the length of measured platform 6 m, artificially covered jumping-hill), about 800 take-offs were analysed, - kinematic analyses of the take-off (in years 1990-1991, about450 take-offs) analysed from different jumping hills - measurement of the speed during the run-on phase, - statistical and graphical methods. Results The long term observation of these problems revealed: - a large variability of this factor in relation to different levels of performers, different forms of hill surfaces, and patterns of take-off force-time curves, - close relation of accuracy to the length of jump and other factors of the take-off, especially vigour, - t h e possibility to create a statistical model enabling the quantification of the take-off accuracy by using results from dynamometric measurements and kinematic analyses.