KINEMATIC AND DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF SPRINT START

  • F. Merni
  • A. Cicchella
  • S. Ciacci
  • F. Bombardi
  • L. Magenti
  • A. Olmucci
  • L. Coppini

Abstract

Aims of this study were the tuning of the methods for kinematic and dynamic analysis of sprint start and the assessment of their relevance for field practice. Data collection was performed by means of an Elite Motion Analysis System (two cameras,3D) at 100 Hzi and a Kistler force platform (type 9281b ) at 500 Hz. Three elite athletes participated in the study; each subject performed three trials. statistical analysis ( ONEWAY ANOVA - SPSSPC software package) was performed in order to highlight significant differences ( F>0.05 ) between the subjects. The start movement was divided into three temporal phases: release of the starting block, landing on first supported push off from platform. significant differences were observed with respect to hip horizontal linear velocity within these phases (F > 0.02-0.001-0.0003) between the subjects. In order to give a complete description of the movement pattern four groups of variables were selected: 1)LINEAR DISPLACEMENTS. Eighteen variables were studied ; thirteen of them show significant differences index of different positions on the starting blocks -and different movement pattern during push-of f . 2)ANGULAR DISPLACEMENTS. Thirty-five variables were selected; eighteen show significant differences. 3) LINEAR AND ANGULAR-VEMCITIES Of the 54 variables studied (20 linear var. and 34 angular var.) , 38 (13 linear var. and 15 angular var. ) shows significant differences. 4)DYNAMIC DATA. We studied 62 variables, 26 of which showed significant differences. Exit velocity from starting blocks is influenced by the force produced during the first support phase and by the kinematics of the body segments. The different results obtained by the athletes in hip horizontal velocity, can be explained with the significant differences observed with respect to kinematic and dynamic of the phases of start studied. Main variables that shows significant differences are: hip, knee and ankle peak angular velocities, duration of first support phase and joint moments during push-off from first support phase. These variables seems to be logically related with the index of performance,hip horizontal velocity.