AN ASSESSMENT OF SPEED-STRENGTH ABILITIES IN YOUNG MEN
AbstractINTRODUCTION Muscle strength is one of the most important factors in sport performance and other human activities -in this case it concerns the physical preparation of military pilots, particularly in order to develop the +Gz toleration. The study was designed to establish the parameters of speed-strength abilities of upper and lower extremities in young men. It allows us to find out the relationships between age, body mass, speed and muscle strength in order to improve the efficiency of weight training. METHODS One hundred young men (cadet-pilots) participated in the study. They were divided into two main groups: middle aviation school students (n=21; 16.0±1.1 years of age, 173.4±5.3 cm body height, 63.8±10.2 kg body weight) and the Polish Air-Force Academy students (n=79; 20.9±1.4 years of age, 178.0±5.7 cm b.h., 73.3±7.3 kg b.m.). In order to estimate the basic speed-strength parameters of upper and lower extremities both groups performed bench press and squats. Exercises were provided on a computerized stand (locally made) under isokinetic (co = 0.2 radIs) and isotonic (M = 20 Nxm) conditions. The subjects performed three trials with maximal effort to estimate the maximal speed (MS) and the maximal torque (MT) developed in the exercise. Descriptive statistics for each parameter as well as the t-test and Pearson's correlation matrix were used (p<0.05). RESULTS The mean values of MT developed in bench press and squats under isokinetic conditions by young cadets (751±193 and 1482±396 Nxm, respectively) were significantly lower then by older cadet pilots (9971231 and 18521433 Nxm). There was no difference between groups concerning MS registered under isotonic conditions, both in bench press (1.44±O.08 radls-young and 1.49±O.12 rad/s-older) and squats (1.45±O.19 and 1.51 ±O.20 radIs, respectively). A significant correlation was found between body mass and the maximal external torque developed under isokinetic conditions (stronger in the older group). CONCLUSIONS The results of this study suggest that without special training, speed of movement remains constant in young men while muscle strength increases according to body mass changes. The maximal values of the speed of upper and lower extremities were achieved only in the age group 15-16 and they were independent of body height, body mass and the age of the investigated groups. REFERENCES Gabriel D.A.: J. Appl. Sport Sei. Res. 1991, 5(1): 6-10. Hortobagyi T., Lachance P.E.: Hung. Rev. Sports Med. 1987, 28(3-4): 209 226. Poulin M. J., Vandervoort A A, Paterson D. H., Kramer J. F., Cunningham D. D.: Can. J. Sport Sei. 1992,17 (1): 3-7. Prietto C. A, Caiozzo V. J.: Am. J. of Sports Med. 1989, 17 (5): 607-611. Saganiak R., Ktossowski M.. Eliasz J., Pich J., Deren M.:
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