• J. Krug
  • M. Witt


INTRODUCION - Air-borne human rotational movements represent a complicated problem of theoretical mechanics. Many studies have been presented during the recent years by YEADON (1984) and HILDEBRAND (1985) and other authors to gain new knowledge on mechanic principles. In these studies the athlete was considered to be a multi-link system of rigid bodies. Besides these studies there is a variety of publications on general physiological phenomena during human rotational movements. It is interesting to know that there is until now no publication on motor learning and muscular requests for rapid air- borne rotations of athletes. METHODS - The research design is made up of state-of-the-art analyses in figure skating, trampolining, diving and gymnastics to determine recent performance limits, biomechanical studies including 3D-analyses and electromyographic procedures as well. as training-scientific studies (specific measuring devices for biomechanical and EEG studies). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION - In analyses of different rotational movements of international top athletes in the sports mentioned above we found h~gh angular velocities in different disciplines (table 1). These velocity values prove extremely high requests for the information processing systems of movement co-ordination. During different methodical exercises and jumps in figure skating, diving and gymnastics electro-myographical studies of 12 relevant muscles of the trunk and neck using 3D analyses were linked and coordination patterns were compared. Activation waves of trunk muscles prove cycles of the recruited muscles with a frequency ranging from 3 to 4 Hz (depending on angular velocity in rotational movements on the longitudinal axis). Here obviously movement automation occurs since interviews with athletes on what they are focusing on in orientation during movement regulation only produced a few and simple "control impulses". Using EEG procedures we could verify that active movement imagery or movement performance imagery is an important part of learning complicated air-borne rotations. Table 1: Angular velocities (degls) in different disciplines REFERENCES - HILDEBRAND, F. (1 985). Eine biomechanische Analyse der Drehbewegungen des menschlichen Korpers. Leipzig. Habilitation. YEADON, M. R. (1984). The mechanics of twisting somersaults. Loughborough. Doctoral Thesis. YEADON, M. R. (1994). Twisting techniques used in dismounts from the rings. International Journal of Sport Biomechanics. Champaign.