• K. Knoll


INTRODUCTION - Acrobatic tumbling exercises on floor and balance beam belong to the movement structures which are decisive for performance. The most complicated somersault variants are mostly performed following preparing elements as rondat and flic-flac. Toperform the complicated somersaults well a big amount of kinetic energy has to be supplied by the run-up and by rondat as well as flic-flac at the onset of take-off for the somersault. The conditions for theenergy production and the solutions for itare analysed for both apparatuses. Differences between the two apparatuses are illustrated. The comparative studies were done as case study with the example of the tumbling set rondat, flic-flac, Tsukahara. The exercise was performed by female and male gymnasts on the floor and on the balance beam. Using 2D and 3D procedures to process images video recordings(50 fls) of the individual Gymnastics World Championships 1994 in Brisbane and World Team championships in gymnastics1994 in Dortmund were analysed. The body was separated into 10 segments. Kinetic energy, angular momentum on the transversal axis - in relation to the individual segments and the whole body - , horizontal speed of the centre of gravity, spatial as well as body angles served as main parameters. To gain parameters which can be compared energy and angular momentum were related to unified values concerning bodyheight and bodyweight. RESLILTS - Before the take-off for a complicated somersault variant kinetic energy preceding the take-off for a somersaults on the floor amounts about 1500Nm. The value is almost the same for female and male gymnasts. The higher driving height (difference of the centre of gravity between take-off and peak value of the air-borne movement) which male gymnasts perform is due to better strength abilities. The comparison between floor and balance beam exercises prove that the apparatus' conditions preceding the takeoff or a somersault on the floor produce a much bigger kinetic energy than on the balance beam. Thus we measured bigger driving heights on the floor and the reduction of the initial angular momentum in relation to the somersault angular momentum is more distinct. Energy can be produced during supporting phase of the feet and the hands in the flic-flac. CONCLUSION - The degree of difficulty of the elements performed on the balance beam can only be enhanced to a limited extend in relation to the floor. The height of the balance beam which causes a longer flight-time is only of subordinated importance. The increase in energy during the hand, supporting phase is often used to a little extend only. REFERENCES - WEBER, R. & KNOLL,K. (1989). Weltmeisterschaften im Kunstturnen1989. Wissenschaftlicher Bericht.Schwebebalken. In FEDERATION INTERNATIONALEDE GYMNASTIQUE (Hrsg.)Weltmeisterschaften im Kunstturnen Stuttgart1989. Wissenschaftlicher Bericht(S. 31-39). - THEISS, P. (1992). Aktuelle Entwicklungstendenzen akrobatischer Elemente auf dem Schwebebalken. In G.-P. BRiJGGEMANN & J. K. RLIHL (Hrsg.).Biomechanics in Gymnastics. First Int.Conference Cologne 8.-10.9.1992. Conference Proceedings (S. 129-1 37). Koln:Sport und Buch Strauss, Ed. Sport.