JUMPING STRATEGIES IN A VOLLEYBALL AND A BALLET SPECIFIC JUMP
AbstractINTRODUCTION The performance of a maximal vertical jump fram a static preparatory position (SQJ) or starting with a counter movement (CMJ) implies transformation of rotation about the hip, knee and ankle joints to a maximal translatory movement. Different strategies have been proposed for this transformation. Previously both sequential and simullaneous strategies have been proposed as optimal for maximal vertical jumping (1 & 2). The purpose of this study was to analyze ]umping strategies in a sport and dance specific maximal vertical jump. The hypothesis was that the technical demands of the Jumps would preset the strategy. Six male subjects participated in the study three professional ballet dancers and three elite volleyball players. In the ballet specific jump (BSJ) the legs were outward rotated, one foot was placed in front of and close to the other foot and the upper body kept upright. Three elite volleyball players performed the jump used for the smash (VSJ) including a three step preliminary run up and a farcefull arm swing. Afterwards all six subjects performed SQJ and CMJ. The ]umps were recorded on high speed film (500Hz) combined with registrations trom an AMTI force platform and EMG recordings from the major lower extremity muscles Net joint moments and joint work ware calculated by inverse dynamics. The strategy of the jumps was determined on the basis of angular kinematics and the pattern of nel joint moments of the two dominant joints RESULTS For BSJ the jumping height (h) was 0.22O.28m.The war!< contribution from the knee and ankle joint were 50-70% and 47-63% of the total work respectively while the work at the hip joint showed a negative contribution of 13-17% caused by a net hip flexor moment. Because of the specific ballet position the hip extension took place in the frontal plane and mgluteus maximus could not contribute to the extension. The concentric activity in mrectus femoris could partly explain the hip flexor moment. The knee and ankle joint initiated the extension phase simultaneously and the net joint moments peaked also simultaneously Therefore, the strategy could be defined as simultaneous. For VSJ h was 0.310.45m. The work contribution fram the knee and hip joints were 22-60% and 35-62% of the total work respectively. The hip joint began the extension phase before the body center of mass had reached its lowest position (sn The knee extension began 40-100ms after s.j. The peaks of the net joint moments of the hip and knee showed a similar pattern. Accordingly, the strategy could be defined as sequentiaL The sequential joint extension could partly be explained by the forcefull armswing pressing down and giving negative momentum in the downward phase and by this delaying the knee extension. In SQJ and CMJ h was 0.22-0.36m and 0.33-0AOm. The work contribution from the knee was 64.5%(SE 5.9) and 76.0% (SE 9.2) and from the hip 18.8% (SE 5.8) and 133% (SE 8.7). One ballet dancer and one volleyball player performed SQJ and CMJ with a simultaneous strategy while the otller four subjects used a sequential strategy. CONCLUSION In a maximal vertical jump fram ballet and from volleyball the technical demands preset the jumping strategy. When the subjects were asked to perform SQJ and CMJ the choice of strategy seemed individual and not connected to the training background. REFERENCES (1) Hudson, J.L. (1986). Med Sci. Sports Exerc, 18,242-251 (2) Babbert, M.F. & van lngen Schenau, G.J. (1986). J Biomechanics, 21, 249•262
Authors can retain copyright, while granting the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports (ISBS) the right of first publication.