BIOMECHANICAL ASPECTS OF THE POLE VAULT - ANALYSlS OF THE 4th IAAF WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP
AbstractWorld class pole vaulters were analysed at the 4th IAAF World Championships in Stuttgart, 1993 Performance relevant parameters were obtained using standard APAS procedures. DLT for non-panning cameras provided spatial coordinates for the 3-d analysis Graphical and numerical postprocessing of the data was done using Excel. In addition to the video graphic recording, the event was filmed with two panned 16mm Locam cameras operating at 100 Hz to determine temporal parameters. Furthermore approach velocities were measured using doubled IR photocells. Vertical CM accelerations in the free flight phase verified, that the digitally filtered data are reliable despite the large object space There was little lateral motion of the CM. Thus, for many applications, a 2-d analysis can be justified. Top vaulters clear heights 1,Zm above their grip height. Huffman cleared 5,Sm using a new 'straddle like' clearance. This was 1,17m above grip height. Compared to major competitions in the last decade approach speed stagnated or even decreased while performance improved. However, better vaulters tend to have higher speed and acceleration into the last approach section. High approach speed is a necessary but non-sufficient prerequisite for high vaults. Analysis of the time course of potential and kinetic energy reveals the importance of the enery at takeoff and the work done on the pole. These factors are not independent of each other. Thus, there is an optimum relationship between energy produced in the respective phases of the vault. This optimum depends on the current technical and conditional standard of the athlete. The inter- and intraindividual variations in the measured parameters support the notion, that compensation does take place and is indeed a common strategy on the world class level. Optimum technique remains a time variant, individual and situation specific motor pattern.
Coaching and Sports Activities