COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE KINEMATICS AND KINETICS OF FORWARD AND BACKWARD HUMAN LOCOMOTION

  • L. M. Kugler
  • C. W. Armstrong
  • B. Moleski
Keywords: biomechanic of racing

Abstract

Although common in occurrence one of the least studied modes of human motion is backward locomotion. Backward walking and jogging are currently being used as components of physical therapy for persons who have suffered trauma or submitted to surgery on the lower extremity or back as well as stroke patients. (Gray, 1985, Bates and McCaw, 1986; Kramer and Reid, 1981; Bates, Morrison, Hamill, 1984). Anecdotal reports of reduced noxious stress and beneficial proprioceptive stimulation have perpetuated the use of this form of physical therapy. Position specific sport training necessitates backward locomotion to engender efficient game performances. In numerous sport activities the defensive techniques employed entail retreating or "jockeying" maneuvers. Evasive offensive techniques likewise include backward travel. Some coaches and athletes are supplementing their conventional fitness training regimens with backwards running claiming enhanced hip extensor overloading with the resulting strength adaptation (Morton, 1985).
Section
Muscle-Skeleton-Mechanics