Three-Dimensional Kinematic Comparison Of The Volleyball Jump Serve And The Volleyball Spike

  • C. L. Tant
  • B. Greene
  • M. Bernhardt
Keywords: volleyball


The jump serve and spike require a performer to move through a wide range of kinematic parameters which introduces unfamiliar timing and sequencing problems. The preparatory armswing used on the approach and during ball contact has been considered identical for both skills. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the similarities and differences in the kinematic variables of the spike (SP) and jump serve as). Five male (age: 20.6 +/ - .55 yrs; hgt: 182 +/ - 5.7 cm; mass: 88.4 +/ - 4.4 kg) and 5 female (age: 20.6 +/.55 yrs; hgt: 177.2 +/ - 5.9 cm; mass: 78 +/ - 7.1 kg) intercollegiate volleyball players served as subjects. Two trials of each skill for each performer were videotaped with 2 Panasonic AG-450 camcorders positioned at a 80° convergence angle to the endline for the IS and net for the SP. Shutter speeds were set at 1/500th speed and nominal frame rates of 30 Hz. After filming, analysis of the coordinates was performed using the Ariel Performance Analysis System. Each subject's view was captured, 17 data points digitized, synchronized, and transformed. Data were smoothed with a digital filter set at 10 Hz. ANOVA with repeated measures was utilized to examine differences in the kinematic variables. A significant difference was found between the female spike (FSP) and jump serve (FJS) variables of: resultant linear ball velocity (LBV), resultant linear hand velocity (LHV), CG X displacement (CGX), total movement time (TMT), relative time of preparatory (RTP) and force (RTF) phases, and contact time (CT). No significant differences were found in the relative angles at contact of the shoulder (RAS), elbow (RAE) and wrist (RAW), CG Y displacement (CGY), CG Z displacement (CGZ), and relative time of the follow through phase (RTFT). A significant difference was found between male spike (MSP) and jump serve (MIS) variables of: CGX, CGZ, TMT, RTP, and CT. No significant differences were found in LBV, LHV, RAS, RAE, RAW, CGY, RTF And RTFT. Both male and female subjects exhibited invariant upper body movement patterns with a sequential trunk, upper arm, lower arm, hand sequence between both skills. CG differences were expected because of the greater horizontal component of the IS. Males appear to replicate the SP movement during the J5 more efficiently than females.
Coaching and Sports Activities