• Petr Susanka
  • Jan Stepanek
  • Grigoris Miskos
  • Juris Terauds


The present study analysed the movements of the athlete-hammer system in space, including phenomena that affect the functional course of the implement's circumferential velocity. The path of the spatial trajectory of the hammer head and pertinent anthropometric points were evaluated from the viewpoint of individual turns, the double and single support phase, and the delivery. For each throw the tangential and normal acceleration components and the forces acting on the implement were studied. It was determined that the positive factors, causing an increase in the velocity of the hammer head, included: 1. Vigorous leg action, with the feet continuously turning in a uninterrupted manner and never held in a static double-support position. 2. The gradual temporal shortenting of the single-support phase to make the single and double support phases of the last two turns of equal length. 3. The rotating of the trunk ahead of the pelvis, with a shift of the center of the shoulder connecting line toward the right hip-joint. 4. The turning of the shoulder axis ahead of the hammer-wire axis. 5. The vertical lifting of the hip-joints against the direction of the vertical motion of the grip and hammer head. 6. An obtuse angle, greater than 110 degrees, between the shoulder and hammer-wire axis, with the highest possible position of the implement ranging from 1.60 to 2.00 meters at the start of the delivery phase.
Coaching and Sports Activities