EFFECT OF THREE SPIKE CONFIGURATIONS ON THE GROUND REACTION FORCES IN SPRING STARTS
AbstractThe effectiveness of sprinting is dependent upon sufficient traction between the feet and ground. Lack of such traction usually affects the balance in the movement of the body and slippage may occur. In order to investigate traction and effective movement, it is necessary to understand Newton's third law of motion, which states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. For skill to be performed effectively, force production should involve the one-to-one correspondence between the force that is applied to the ground by the foot of a performer and the force that is being "used" during propulsion (Cavanagh and Kram, 1985). Few studies have been conducted by researchers to quantify the force production during sprinting and in the sprint start for the purpose of detecting and optimizing the performance of an athlete (Nett, 1964; and Cavanagh 1982.). Despite a considerable amount of research involving force production during crouch start and sprinting (Payne and Bloder, 1970, Henry, 1952., Barlow and Cooper, 1972.). A question of concern remains unanswered regarding the use of spikes in sprinting. What is the effect of spike configuration upon sprinting performance? Configuration is defined in this study as the shape and the length of the spike. While the shape is determined by the shoe manufacturing designer, the maximum length of an individual spike and the number of spikes, in each shoe are determined by the international rule. The rule is as follows: "the part of each spike which projects from the sole or heel must not exceed 9 mm in length. "
Equipment / Instrumentation