• Chiung-Yun Hsu
  • Pao-Cheng Lin
  • Hui-Mei Lin
Keywords: Water Polo, Throwing, Kinematics, Biomechanics


The purpose of this study is to investigate the parameters of displacement. velocity, and acceleration of water polo over arm throwing. Six water polo athletes participated in this study. Kwon 3D was utilized to analyze arm movement of water polo shooting, including the displacement, velocity, and acceleration of wrist, elbow, shoulder, and ball. The results indicated, first, the displacement of arm movement was quadratic polynomial at a frequency of 0.6 second with maximum distance of 130.97 cm for ball, 117.17 cm for wrist, 107.04 cm for elbow, and 94.22 cm for shoulder. Second, the velocity of arm movement was a cubic curve with maximum speed of 25.368 m/s for ball, 20.092 m/s for wrist, 19.732 rn/s for elbow, and 23.846 m/s for shoulder. Moreover, the change of maximum velocity of ball and wrist occurred after 1.5 seconds, while the velocity of elbow and shoulder both decreased for 0.5 seconds. Third, the acceleration of arm movement showed a 6th order polynomial at a frequency of 0.2 second with maximum acceleration of 505.082 m/s2 for ball, 545.526 m/s2 for wrist, 401.82 m/s2 for elbow, and 568.26 m/s2 for shoulder.
Coaching and Sports Activities